Treatment for spondylolisthesis depends on severity, but is usually first approached with non-surgical interventions, such as:
- Lifestyle changes, exercise, weight loss
- Physical therapy, in which special stretches may reduce pain and aid in recovery, and better motions for commonly problematic tasks may be taught to prevent exacerbation of existing problems. In addition, strengthening core muscles helps to compensate for spinal insufficiency.
- Several pharmacological treatments exist including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen, steroids for long term relief, and stronger narcotics for pain that does not respond to existing pain management. In the case of steroids, an injection is typically made at the level of the problematic structure, limiting inflammation for months at a time and allowing time for recovery.
In some cases, surgery will be necessary, and typically involves the fusion of vertebrae to stabilize the spinal column.
- Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion is an open and invasive procedure in which a problematic intervertebral disc is removed, and the adjoining vertebrae are fused with a bone graft and implanted hardware for stabilization
- Minimally Invasive Lumbar Fusion may be performed as an outpatient procedure, and is less traumatic to local tissues, providing faster recovery times, reduced risk of infection, and a reduced risk of complications associated with open surgery